Saturday, July 02, 2011

Madam How and Lady Why Notes: Ch. 7

Ch. 7 The Chalk-Carts

*Interesting website on chalk in the UK:

*P. 138 The “ignoble army of noodles, who think nothing interesting or important but dinners, and balls, and races, and backbiting their neighbors…” Hee hee.

*The Odiham Chalk Pits are in Hampshire, Southeast England, UK

*copse: a small group of trees

*grubbed: removed by digging

*P. 139 “Learn from the thing that lies nearest you.”

*P. 141 Empirical knowledge: “…his knowledge is sound and useful because it comes from long experience.” The farmer’s knowledge came from careful observation.

*Chalk, a type of limestone, “sweetens” soil, or raises its pH, making it less acidic. (eHow)

*A great picture of the chalk grasslands in South England:,_Sussex,_UK.jpg

*P. 142 The “silver Itchen” is a chalk stream. Chalk streams have unusual characteristics:

*P. 145 Kingsley compares the chalk stream to the chalk-cart. They both carry chalk, but how differently they do it.

*marl: lime-rich mud (Wikipedia). Here is a photo:

*P. 146 A possible transformation: chalk into marl into coral into limestone into marble.

*Whernside is in Yorkshire, Northern England

*A swallow-hole is also known as a sink-hole:

*P. 151 Cave formation; stalactites and stalagmites

*The dropping-well at Knaresborough, now known as the Petrifying Well:

*Proteus: cave salamander or olm (

*P. 153 The vanishing lake:

*Mammoth Cave in Kentucky:

*P. 153-154 Cave adaptation: partial or total blindness, and, in the case of the ducks, lack of feathers. Interesting to note that the ducks quickly re-adjusted to life in the upper world—growing feathers and regaining their eyesight.

*The cave at Caripe, Venezuela:

*Guacharos, or Oilbirds:

*P. 157 “It will not do for us (at least if we mean to be scientific men) to use terms without defining them.”

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