Ch. 7 The Chalk-Carts
*Interesting website on chalk in the UK:
*P. 138 The “ignoble army of noodles, who think nothing interesting or important but dinners, and balls, and races, and backbiting their neighbors…” Hee hee.
*The Odiham Chalk Pits are in Hampshire, Southeast England, UK
*copse: a small group of trees
*grubbed: removed by digging
*P. 139 “Learn from the thing that lies nearest you.”
*P. 141 Empirical knowledge: “…his knowledge is sound and useful because it comes from long experience.” The farmer’s knowledge came from careful observation.
*Chalk, a type of limestone, “sweetens” soil, or raises its pH, making it less acidic. (eHow)
*A great picture of the chalk grasslands in South England:
*P. 142 The “silver Itchen” is a chalk stream. Chalk streams have unusual characteristics:
*P. 145 Kingsley compares the chalk stream to the chalk-cart. They both carry chalk, but how differently they do it.
*marl: lime-rich mud (Wikipedia). Here is a photo:
*P. 146 A possible transformation: chalk into marl into coral into limestone into marble.
*Whernside is in Yorkshire, Northern England
*A swallow-hole is also known as a sink-hole:
*P. 151 Cave formation; stalactites and stalagmites
*The dropping-well at Knaresborough, now known as the Petrifying Well:
*Proteus: cave salamander or olm (http://a-z-animals.com/animals/olm/)
*P. 153 The vanishing lake:
*Mammoth Cave in Kentucky:
*P. 153-154 Cave adaptation: partial or total blindness, and, in the case of the ducks, lack of feathers. Interesting to note that the ducks quickly re-adjusted to life in the upper world—growing feathers and regaining their eyesight.
*The cave at Caripe, Venezuela:
*Guacharos, or Oilbirds:
*P. 157 “It will not do for us (at least if we mean to be scientific men) to use terms without defining them.”